To determine whether a protective immune response could be elicited by oral delivery of a recombinant bacterial vaccine, tetanus toxin fragment C (TTFC) was expressed constitutively in Lactococcus lactis and administered orally to C57 BL/6 mice. The antibody titers elicited were lower than those following intranasal immunization (a route already known to result in high-level systemic anti-TTFC immune responses) but the protective efficacy was the same order of magnitude. The serum antibody isotypes elicited were predominantly IgG1 and IgG2a. TTFC-specific fecal IgA responses could be detected following oral or intranasal immunization. Chemically killed lactococci administered via the intranasal route were also able to elicit serum antibody responses of similar levels and kinetics to those induced by live bacteria.