Data from a case-control study conducted at 27 hospitals in France in 1986-88 were analyzed to examine the association between exposure to textile dust and sinonasal cancer. The study included 207 cases and 409 controls. Detailed information on occupational history and other potential risk factors for sinonasal cancer was collected. Exposure to textile dust (probability and level of exposure, type of textile fiber) was assessed by an expert in industrial hygiene. Among women, exposure to textile dust was associated with an elevated risk of squamous cell carcinoma (odds ratio (OR) = 2.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.85-7.06, nine exposed cases) and adenocarcinoma (OR = 3.70, 95% CI = 0.56-24.4, three exposed cases). For squamous cell carcinomas, the risk increased with the duration and the level of exposure (P < 0.05): the ORs for the low, medium, and high level of cumulative exposure were 1.00 (95% CI = 0.10-9.43), 2.43 (95% CI = 0.54-11.1), and 3.57 (95% CI = 0.92-13.8), respectively. There was also a limited evidence of an excess risk of squamous cell carcinomas among men exposed to high levels of textile dust (OR = 2.18, 95% CI = 0.65-7.30, four exposed cases). Because of the strong association between wood-dust exposure and adenocarcinoma, an independent effect of textile dust on this type of cancer could not be studied among men. The risks associated with the different types of textile fibers (cotton, wool, and synthetic fibers) were similar and the results did not permit to incriminate a particular type of textile.