The use of higher-dose, extended interval (i.e., once-daily) aminoglycoside regimens to optimize bacterial killing is justified by a pharmacodynamic principle of aminoglycosides, namely concentration-dependent killing, and by the partial attribution of the toxicity of aminoglycosides to prolonged serum concentrations. Numerous in-vitro and animal studies have supported using once-daily aminoglycoside dosing. Clinical studies show at least equal effectiveness and no greater toxicity when compared with traditional regimens. A dose of 5-7 mg/kg of gentamicin, tobramycin, or netilmicin, with at least a 24 h dosing interval should be employed and a similar regimen can be applied to amikacin dosing. As yet, there are some patient populations that have not been adequately studied to determine whether or not once-daily aminoglycoside dosing would be a better choice than traditional dosing regimens.