Multidrug resistance (MDR) is an important problem in chemotherapy for neoplastic disease. In humans. MDR is mainly mediated by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) a product of the MDRI gene, which acts as a transmembrane protein pump and eliminates chemotherapeutic agents from the cells. Expression of P-gp was immunohistochemically studied by using two monoclonal antibodies, JSB-1 and C-219, on paraffin-embedded sections from 55 patients with soft-tissue sarcoma. The histological diagnosis of tumors was malignant fibrous histiocytoma in 24 cases, liposarcoma in 9, synovial sarcoma in 7, malignant neurogenic tumors in 6, leiomyosarcoma in 5, others in 4. The histological grade was determined on the basis of criteria previously proposed by us. Out of 55 cases, 34 (62%) were positive for P-gp expression. There was a significant difference in P-gp expression between high-grade (90%) and intermediate and low-grade tumors (46%) (P < 0.005). Tumors expressing P-gp had a less favorable prognosis than P-gp-negative tumors in the high- and intermediate-grade tumors. The current study demonstrated that the estimation of P-gp expression could be used to select appropriate therapeutic modalities.