Purpose: A number of factors influence the development of renal calculi, the most essential of which is the supersaturation of urine with lithogenic substances. Calcium oxalate stones occur most frequently in adult and pediatric patients with urolithiasis. Therefore, we established normal age and sex related data for urinary calcium oxalate saturation in infancy and childhood to allow a more specific prediction of the risk of (recurrent) stone disease.
Materials and methods: We collected 24-hour urine samples from 473 healthy infants and children without a history of renal stones. Urinary lithogenic and stone inhibitory substances were measured, and the urinary calcium oxalate saturation was calculated using a computer program.
Results: Mean urinary calcium oxalate saturation was always higher in boys than in girls, which was significant in infancy (5.22 versus 2.03, p < 0.05) and at ages 7 to 9 years (8.84 versus 5.47, p < 0.05). The saturation first increased (p < 0.05) until age 7 to 9 years in boys and girls, and remained at high levels at ages 10 to 12 years (7.03 versus 5.49, p < 0.05 compared to infancy). Calcium oxalate saturation then decreased until adolescence when values were comparable to those of infancy (5.29 versus 3.35).
Conclusions: We recommend calculating urinary calcium oxalate saturation for diagnostic purposes as well as for therapy control. Normal age and sex related values must be considered.