Computed tomographic (CT) peritoneography involves CT of the abdomen and pelvis after administration of a mixture of contrast material and dialysate. CT peritoneography can demonstrate a variety of complications of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. In patients with symptoms of peritonitis, CT peritoneography is better than conventional CT in demonstrating loculated fluid collections and indicates adhesions by means of uneven distribution of the contrast material-dialysate mixture. In patients with edema or abdominal bulging, CT peritoneography reliably shows the site of dialysate leakage and allows differentiation of a leak from a hernia. In patients with problems of fluid return, catheter malposition and its effect on dialysate distribution can be determined with CT peritoneography. In patients with poor ultrafiltration, demonstration of restricted space in the pelvis or poor distribution of fluid with CT peritoneography suggests adhesions. CT peritoneography also provides anatomic information for referring physicians that may determine whether treatment is medical or surgical.