Simulium damnosum s.l.: isolation and identification of prophenoloxidase following an infection with Onchocerca spp. using targeted differential display

Exp Parasitol. 1997 Jul;86(3):213-8. doi: 10.1006/expr.1997.4165.


Phenoloxidase (PO) is the key enzyme for melanin synthesis and plays an important role in the defense and recognition of pathogens in insects and other arthropods. We now report the upregulated transcription of the gene encoding the precursor of PO, prophenoloxidase, in Onchocerca-infected Simulium damnosum s.l., the main vector of human and bovine onchocerciasis in subsaharan Africa. Using homology-based generic primers in a polymerase chain reaction-based targeted differential display, the gene itself was identified and partially sequenced.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Blotting, Northern
  • Catechol Oxidase / analysis*
  • Catechol Oxidase / chemistry
  • Catechol Oxidase / genetics
  • Cattle
  • DNA, Helminth / analysis
  • Enzyme Precursors / analysis*
  • Enzyme Precursors / chemistry
  • Enzyme Precursors / genetics
  • Insect Vectors / enzymology*
  • Insect Vectors / genetics
  • Insect Vectors / parasitology*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Onchocerca / physiology*
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
  • Simuliidae / enzymology*
  • Simuliidae / genetics
  • Simuliidae / parasitology*
  • Up-Regulation


  • DNA, Helminth
  • Enzyme Precursors
  • pro-phenoloxidase
  • Catechol Oxidase