Dog collars made of PVC plastic impregnated with the pyrethroid insecticide deltamethrin at 40 mg/g were investigated for their protective efficacy against phlebotomine sandflies. Collared dogs were kept separately (two untreated control dogs lived together) in outdoor enclosures, each with a kennel, in the Cévennes, southern France. To measure sandfly mortality and anti-feeding effects due to the deltamethrin-impregnated collars worn continuously by the dogs for up to 8 months, each dog was periodically sedated and exposed for 2h to 150-200 laboratory-reared Phlebotomus perniciosus females (plus c. 25 males) inside a net (1.2 m square, 1.8 m high) indoors. After dogs were removed from the nets, allowed to recover and returned to their kennels, any dead sandflies were collected from inside the net and counted. Surviving flies were kept overnight, then scored according to whether they were still alive or dead, unfed or blood-fed. From tests 2, 3, 4, 13, 20, 26 and 34 weeks after the dogs began wearing collars, the overall numbers of blood-fed female sandflies recaptured were 75 from two dogs with collars, compared with 1911 from two collarless dogs. Thus, for every 100 flies which fed on collarless dogs, only 4 fed on collared dogs, i.e. the collars protected dogs from 96% of the bites and this activity was maintained for up to 34 weeks. During the same period, the percentage of recaptured female sandflies that had fed on collared dogs was 0-12% compared to 55-95% on collarless dogs. Immediately after dogs were taken out of the nets, 21-60% of flies confined with the collared dogs were found dead, compared to 0-12% with the controls. It is concluded that, at least in the Mediterranean subregion, this insecticidal collar would protect a dog from the majority of sandfly bites and retain a killing effect for a complete sandfly season. Moreover, it seems likely that the use of collars on all dogs in a focus of Leishmania infantum would reduce contact between sandfly vectors and canine reservoir hosts sufficiently to diminish the risk of infection for humans as well as dogs.