Five strains of a hitherto unknown Actinomyces-like bacterium were isolated from human clinical sources, including blood cultures. Biochemical and chemotaxonomic characterization indicated that the strains were distinct from previously described Actinomyces and Arcanobacterium species. A comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis demonstrated that the undescribed strains constitute a new subline within the Actinomyces-Arcanobacterium species complex. The closest known relative of the isolates was found to be Actinomyces suis, although a 16S rRNA sequence divergence value of approximately 6% clearly demonstrated that the unknown bacterium represents a distinct species. Based on the results of the present and earlier phylogenetic investigations, it is proposed that Actinomyces suis should be reclassified in a new genus, the genus Actinobaculum, as Actinobaculum suis comb. nov. In addition, a new species, Actinobaculum schaalii, is proposed for the Actinomyces-like bacterium from human sources. The type strain of Actinobaculum schaalii is CCUG 27420.