To examine the effect of the timing of amino acids (AA) and glucose (G) administration after exercise on protein kinetics, ten dogs fitted with chronic catheters in the artery and the femoral vein ran on a treadmill for 150 min. They were intraportally infused with a solution containing AA and G either right after (E) or 2 h after (L) the exercise. The protein kinetics were estimated using the arteriovenous difference of phenylalanine (Phe) coupled with the [2H5]Phe dilution method. The net balance of Phe across the hindlimb (HL) was negative after exercise. It became positive in E within 15 min after the start of the infusion, and it remained negative in L until the infusion was initiated. The uptake of Phe by the HL during the second half of the infusion period was higher in E than in L (10.9 +/- 6.6 vs. 5.4 +/- 2.3 nmol.kg-1.min-1, P = 0.049). During the infusion, protein synthesis in the HL was higher in E than in L (29.7 +/- 9.6 vs. 22.0 +/- 10.1 nmol.kg-1.min-1, P = 0.028), whereas proteolysis was comparable (18.7 +/- 5.7 vs. 16.5 +/- 11.1 nmol.kg-1.min-1. These results suggest that the early provision of the nutrients after exercise more effectively enhances protein accretion than nutrients administered later.