Videostroboscopic glottic measurements and vocal function were evaluated in 41 vocal fold atrophy patients with bowed vocal folds. The amount of bowing in the resting position and the glottal gap area and vibratory amplitude during phonation were measured from digitized videostroboscopic images. Vibratory amplitude was not decreased on atrophic vocal folds. With the same amount of total bowing, the glottal gap area for bilateral atrophy was smaller than for unilateral atrophy. These results suggest that vocal fold atrophy is not disadvantageous to thyroplasty type I, and that bilateral procedures may produce a better outcome than a unilateral procedure in the treatment of bilateral atrophy. Acoustic, aerodynamic, and perceptual parameters of vocal function were measured. The acoustic high-frequency power ratio and the H-index correlated with the glottal gap area. The mean flow rate correlated with the amount of bowing. The degree of dysphonia was related to the size of the glottal gap and bowing.