Bronchoscopic examination may be indicated to evaluate various parts of the airway including the larynx, the subglottic region, or the more peripheral aspects of the tracheobronchial tree. The chances of a successful examination may be increased by the appropriate use of sedation. The following article reviews the steps required prior to during, and after the provision of anesthesia for bronchoscopic examination of the airway. The essentials of the preoperative examination, requirements for intraoperative monitoring, and postoperative recovery are discussed. The various agents and techniques available for deep sedation and general anesthesia are reviewed.