Multivariate analysis of the association at baseline between problem drinking and cardiovascular risk factors among 1,233 white male employees of the Chicago Peoples Gas Company age 40-59 showed the 38 problem drinkers with significantly higher blood pressures and cigarette consumption and significantly lower relative weights than the others. Similar analysis among 1,899 white male employees of the Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric Company in Chicago age 40-55 showed the 117 men consuming 5 or more drinks per day with significantly higher blood pressures and cigarette use than the others. No significant differences were recorded between heavy drinkers and the others in serum cholesterol level. The gas company problem drinkers had significantly higher 15-year mortality rates from all causes, cardiovascular diseases, coronary heart disease, and sudden death. These differences could not be entirely explained by their blood pressure, smoking, and relative weight status. The Western Electric heavy drinkers had increased 10-year mortality rates both for all causes and noncardiovascular causes.