Non-invasive quantification of diaphragm kinetics using m-mode sonography

Can J Anaesth. 1997 Jul;44(7):739-44. doi: 10.1007/BF03013389.


Purpose: The standard conditions of spirometry (i.e., wearing a noseclip and breathing through a mouthpiece and a pneumotachograph) are likely to alter the ventilatory pattern. We used "time motion" mode (M-mode) sonography to assess the changes in diaphragm kinetics induced by spirometry during quiet breathing.

Methods: An M-mode sonographic study of the right diaphragm was performed before and during standard spirometry in eight patients without respiratory disease (age 34 to 68 yr).

Results: During spirometry, the diaphragm inspiratory amplitude (DIA) increased from 1.34 +/- 0.18 cm to 1.80 +/- 0.18 cm (P = 0.007), whereas the diaphragmatic inspiratory (T1 diaph) increased from 1.27 +/- 0.15 to 1.53 +/- 0.23 sec, (P = 0.015, without change in diaphragmatic total time interval (Ttot diaph). Therefore, the diaphragm duty cycle (T1 diaph/Ttot diaph) increased from 38% +/- 1% to 44% +/- 4% (P = 0.023). The diaphragm inspiratory (DIV) and expiratory (DEV) motion velocity (P = 0.007).

Conclusion: M-mode sonography enabled us to demonstrate that the wearing of a nose clip and breathing through a mouthpiece and a pneumotachograph induce measurable changes in diaphragm kinetics.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Diaphragm / diagnostic imaging*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Kinetics
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Respiration
  • Spirometry / methods
  • Ultrasonography* / methods