Objective: Unfiltered coffee raises serum LDL cholesterol in humans, owing to the presence of the diterpenes cafestol and kahweol. Norwegians with a chronic high intake of unfiltered coffee also has elevated serum levels of lipoprotein(a), an LDL-like particle which is insensitive toward dietary interventions. We now experimentally studied the influence of coffee diterpenes on lipoprotein(a) levels.
Design: Four randomised controlled trials.
Subjects: Healthy, normolipidemic volunteers.
Interventions: Coffee, coffee oil, and pure diterpenes for 4-24 weeks.
Main outcome measures: The circulating level of lipoprotein(a).
Results: In 22 subjects drinking five to six strong cups of cafetiere coffee per day, the median fall in lipoprotein(a) was 1.5 mg/dL after two months (P = 0.03), and 0.5 mg/dL after half a year (P > 0.05), relative to 24 filter coffee drinkers. Coffee oil doses equivalent to 10-20 cups of unfiltered coffee reduced lipoprotein(a) levels by up to 5.5 mg/dL (P < 0.05) in two separate trials (n = 12-16 per group). A purified mixture of cafestol and kahweol, as well as cafestol alone, were also effective in reducing Lp(a) levels (n = 10). Averaged over the four trials, each 10 mg/d of cafestol (plus kahweol)--the amount present in two to three cups of cafetiere coffee--decreased Lp(a) levels by 0.5 mg/dL or 4% from baseline values after four weeks (n = 63).
Conclusions: Coffee diterpenes are among the few dietary exceptions shown to influence serum lipoprotein(a) levels. However, the Lp(a)-reducing potency of coffee diterpenes may subside in the long run, and their adverse side effects preclude their use as lipoprotein(a)-reducing agents.