Simple high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the detection of phenylpropionylglycine in urine as a diagnostic tool in inherited medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency

J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl. 1997 Jun 20;694(1):227-32. doi: 10.1016/s0378-4347(97)00145-x.


Deficiency of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase is a frequent and treatable metabolic defect, which can be diagnosed by detection of phenylpropionylglycine in urine after an oral load of phenylpropionic acid. We studied the determination of phenylpropionylglycine in urine by isocratic ion-exclusion chromatography on a cation-exchange column using water-sulphuric acid (pH values between 2 and 4) as mobile phase. Phenylpropionylglycine, phenylpropionic acid and hippuric acid exhibited high retention factors with only a slight decline at increasing solvent pH. This resulted in a good separation from interfering substances after direct injection of urine. We hypothesize that pi-pi interactions between the aromatic carbonic acids and the ion-exchange resin are responsible for the strong retention on the stationary phase. We conclude that, even in asymptomatic patients, determination of phenylpropionylglycine in urine after a phenylpropionic acid load by ion-exclusion chromatography is a rapid and reliable diagnostic tool for the detection of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency.

MeSH terms

  • Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase
  • Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenases / deficiency*
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Glycine / analogs & derivatives*
  • Glycine / urine
  • Hippurates / analysis
  • Humans
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Phenylpropionates / analysis
  • Sensitivity and Specificity


  • Hippurates
  • Phenylpropionates
  • 3-phenylpropionylglycine
  • 3-phenylpropionic acid
  • Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenases
  • Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase
  • hippuric acid
  • Glycine