The protective efficacy of a glycoprotein D subunit vaccine (gD2 SB AS4) was evaluated in a mouse model of human recurrent herpetic stromal keratitis (HSK). When administered before primary infection, gD2 SB AS4 protected mice against corneal pathology, mortality, and latency resulting from ocular viral challenge with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) McKrae strain. In addition, gD2 SB AS4 significantly decreased postreactivation corneal disease. A control vaccine, gD2 alum, protected against acute ocular infection only. When administered after primary infection, gD2 SB AS4 vaccination decreased postreactivation ocular shedding but had no other significant effects. Vaccination with gD2 SB AS4 was associated with high anti-gD antibody responses and low delayed-type hypersensitivity responses. These results have identified a prophylactic vaccine, gD2 SB AS4, with activity against acute and recurrent HSK in mice and emphasize the need for vaccine evaluation in both primary and recurrent ocular herpetic disease models.