Induction of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Expression in Monocytic Cells by Cryptococcus Neoformans and Candida Albicans

J Infect Dis. 1997 Aug;176(2):485-91. doi: 10.1086/514068.


Because candidiasis and cryptococcosis are common in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons, the effect of Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida albicans on HIV expression in monocytic cells was examined. Stimulation of the latently HIV-infected myelomonocytic cell line OM-10.1 with C. neoformans and C. albicans in the presence of pooled human serum caused a ratio-dependent increase in HIV production. Induction of HIV by C. neoformans was enhanced by anti-capsular antibody, while induction by both organisms was inhibited by anti-TNF-alpha antibody. In THP-1 cells transfected with HIV plasmid constructs, both organisms induced transcription from the HIV long terminal repeat that was dependent on intact NF-kappaB binding sequences. Thus, C. neoformans and C. albicans enhance HIV expression in monocytic cells through a TNF-alpha- and NF-kappaB-dependent mechanism. In HIV-infected patients, such enhancement may further impair host immunity and could accelerate the course of HIV disease.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Binding Sites
  • Candida albicans / physiology*
  • Cell Line
  • Cryptococcus neoformans / physiology*
  • HIV Long Terminal Repeat / physiology
  • HIV Reverse Transcriptase / metabolism
  • HIV-1 / growth & development*
  • Hot Temperature
  • Humans
  • Monocytes / virology*
  • NF-kappa B
  • Transcription, Genetic
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / pharmacology
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / physiology
  • Virion


  • NF-kappa B
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • HIV Reverse Transcriptase