Heart disease is a common cause of morbidity in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. The management of heart disease in these patients requires a multidimensional approach to the management of heart failure, coronary disease, and arrhythmias, and to risk factors such as hypertension, anemia, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and electrolyte/acid-base disturbances. Coronary artery disease management includes use of antianginal drugs and revascularization of coronary arteries with angioplasty +/- stent placement or coronary artery bypass grafting. The long-term outcomes of these procedures need to be assessed and improved. Hypertension occupies a major role in the pathogenesis of heart disease in ESRD, and early and adequate control of hypertension is likely to have a major impact on the progression of cardiac disease. This entails the achievement of optimal volume status, combined with the appropriate use of antihypertensive agents such as calcium channel blockers, beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, vasodilators, alpha-blockers, and central sympatholytic drugs. In ESRD patients, specific dialysis-related complications such as intradialytic hypotension and pericardial effusion may have additional effects on cardiac function and require attention. The choice of dialysate composition and membrane may influence clinical outcomes with specific effects on cardiac performance.