Ultrasound-guided percutaneous core biopsy technique was studied in 15 consecutive patients with chronic Achilles tendon disorder defined as persisting local pain during daily activities, localized pain and swelling on palpation 2-5 cm proximal to the calcaneal insertion. Ultrasound verified widening of the tendon and low echogenous areas at the site of pain. Percutaneous biopsies were taken from both the low echogenous areas and the normoechogenic tendon tissue. Of 104 core biopsies 99 were representative. Open biopsies were taken from the macroscopically injured and normal tendon for comparison. Core and open biopsies of the low echogenous and macroscopically injured tendon showed similar histopathology. In 10 patients the core biopsy was performed under local anesthesia with limited subjective symptoms. Five of these patients were operated 18-41 days later. No adverse effect was found referring to the biopsy taken a few weeks prior to surgery. No complications occurred. We conclude that the percutaneous core biopsy, guided by ultrasound and performed under local anesthesia, can be used under clinical and experimental in vivo studies for improving knowledge on pathoanatomy and healing processes of the Achilles tendon.