We assessed changes in cognitive, psychological, and risky behavior latent variables after traditional or specialized AIDS education after 2 years using structural equation modeling (SEM) in a sample of impoverished at-risk African American women (N = 300). Both groups reported significant improvement at 2 years in their self-esteem and social resources. They also reported less threat perception, avoidant coping, emotional disturbance, HIV risk behavior, and drug use behavior. There was an advantage to specialized group membership. When compared with the traditional group at 2 years, women in the specialized group reported enhanced social resources, reduced emotional distress, less use of an avoidant coping style, and less drug use. We discuss advantages of culturally sensitive HIV risk reduction programs and the importance of connecting women with social services in their communities.