Replication protein A [RPA; also known as replication factor A (RFA) and human single-stranded DNA-binding protein] is a single-stranded DNA-binding protein that is required for multiple processes in eukaryotic DNA metabolism, including DNA replication, DNA repair, and recombination. RPA homologues have been identified in all eukaryotic organisms examined and are all abundant heterotrimeric proteins composed of subunits of approximately 70, 30, and 14 kDa. Members of this family bind nonspecifically to single-stranded DNA and interact with and/or modify the activities of multiple proteins. In cells, RPA is phosphorylated by DNA-dependent protein kinase when RPA is bound to single-stranded DNA (during S phase and after DNA damage). Phosphorylation of RPA may play a role in coordinating DNA metabolism in the cell. RPA may also have a role in modulating gene expression.