The case is described of a 42-year-old patient with acute myeloid leukemia who received two courses of chemotherapy complicated by prolonged bone marrow depression. He was admitted to hospital with fever, hepatosplenomegaly and bilateral nodular pulmonary infiltrates. After admission diffuse cutaneous skin nodules, and hypodense lesions in the hemispheres and cerebellum developed. Cultures of cerebrospinal fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, skin biopsy specimens and blood revealed Scedosporium prolificans, indicative of disseminated mycosis. Treatment with amphotericin B and fluconazole was unsuccessful and the patient died within five days after admission. Features that may enhance early recognition of Scedosporium prolificans infection by both clinicians and microbiologists, as well as options in the treatment of infection with this fungal agent are discussed.