Activation of glycolysis in human muscle in vivo

Am J Physiol. 1997 Jul;273(1 Pt 1):C306-15. doi: 10.1152/ajpcell.1997.273.1.C306.


We tested the cytoplasmic control mechanisms for glycolytic ATP synthesis in human wrist flexor muscles. The forearm was made ischemic and activated by maximal twitch stimulation of the median and ulnar nerves in 10 subjects. Kinetic changes in phosphocreatine, Pi, ADP, ATP, sugar phosphates, and pH were measured by 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 7.1-s intervals. Proton production was determined from pH and tissue buffer capacity during stimulation. Glycolysis was activated between 30 and 50 stimulations, and the rate did not significantly change through the stimulation period. The independence of glycolytic rate on [Pi], [ADP], or [AMP] indicates that feedback regulation by these metabolites could not account for this activation of glycolysis. However, glycolytic H+ and ATP production increased sixfold from 0.5 to 3 Hz, indicating that glycolytic rate reflected muscle activation frequency. This dependence of glycolytic rate on muscle stimulation frequency and independence on metabolite levels is consistent with control of glycolysis by Ca2+.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adenosine Diphosphate / metabolism
  • Adenosine Monophosphate / metabolism
  • Adenosine Triphosphate / metabolism
  • Adult
  • Electric Stimulation
  • Energy Metabolism*
  • Feedback
  • Female
  • Forearm
  • Glycogen / metabolism
  • Glycolysis*
  • Humans
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  • Male
  • Median Nerve / physiology
  • Middle Aged
  • Models, Biological
  • Muscle, Skeletal / innervation
  • Muscle, Skeletal / metabolism
  • Muscle, Skeletal / physiology*
  • Phosphates / metabolism
  • Phosphorus
  • Ulnar Nerve / physiology


  • Phosphates
  • Phosphorus
  • Adenosine Monophosphate
  • Adenosine Diphosphate
  • Adenosine Triphosphate
  • Glycogen