Human B cells secreting immunoglobulin G to glutamic acid decarboxylase-65 from a nondiabetic patient with multiple autoantibodies and Graves' disease: a comparison with those present in type 1 diabetes

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997 Aug;82(8):2664-70. doi: 10.1210/jcem.82.8.4171.


Antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase-65 (GAD65) are present in a number of autoimmune disorders, such as insulin-dependent (type 1) diabetes mellitus (IDDM), stiff man syndrome, and polyendocrine autoimmune disease. Antibodies to GAD in IDDM patients usually recognize conformation-dependent regions on GAD65 and rarely bind to the second isoform, glutamic acid decarboxylase-67 (GAD67). In contrast, those present in stiff man syndrome and polyendocrine disease commonly target the second isoform (GAD67) and include antibodies that are less dependent on the conformation of the molecule. By immortalizing peripheral blood B cells with Epstein-Barr virus, we have generated three human IgG autoantibodies, termed b35, b78, and b96, to GAD65 from one patient with multiple autoantibodies to endocrine organs and Graves' disease. All three autoantibodies are of the IgG1 isotype, with islet cell activity, and do not react with GAD67. The regions on GAD65 recognized by the three autoantibodies have been investigated by immunoprecipitation with a series of chimeras, by binding to denatured and reduced antigens, and using protein footprinting techniques. Using chimeric GAD proteins, we have shown that b35 targets the IDDM-E1 region of GAD65 (amino acids 240-435) whereas both b78 and b96 target the IDDM-E2 region of GAD65 (amino acids 451-570). Furthermore, examination of binding to recombinant GAD65 and GAD67 by Western blotting revealed some differences in epitope recognition, where only b78 bound denatured and reduced GAD65. However, b35, b78, and b96 autoantibodies had different footprinting patterns after trypsin treatment of immune complexes with GAD65, again indicating different epitope recognition. Our results indicate that antibodies to GAD65 present in nondiabetic patients with multiple autoantibodies to endocrine organs show similarities to those in IDDM (by targeting IDDM-E1 and IDDM-E2 regions of GAD65) as well as subtle differences in epitope recognition (such as binding to denatured and reduced GAD65 and by protein footprinting). Thus, the GAD65 epitopes recognized by autoantibodies in different autoimmune diseases may overlap and be more heterogeneous than previously recognized.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Autoantibodies / immunology*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / immunology*
  • Epitopes / immunology
  • Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect
  • Glutamate Decarboxylase / immunology*
  • Graves Disease / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin G / immunology*
  • Immunosorbent Techniques
  • Islets of Langerhans / immunology*
  • Male
  • Peptides / immunology
  • Peptides / metabolism
  • Trypsin / metabolism


  • Autoantibodies
  • Epitopes
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • Peptides
  • Trypsin
  • Glutamate Decarboxylase