Background: We recently isolated the KAI1 gene, a metastasis suppressor gene for prostate cancer, from human chromosome region 11p13-cen-containing rat prostate cancer cells. The present study was performed to further locate the region of the KAI1 gene on the short arm of chromosome 11, and to examine whether loss of this region is significant during progression of human prostate cancer.
Methods: The small portion of human chromosome 11 (i.e., 11p13-cen) was reintroduced into highly metastatic rat prostate cancer cells by using microcell-mediated chromosome transfer. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at polymorphic microsatellite loci on the human chromosome 11 was examined in human prostate cancer tissues.
Results: The minimum region of human chromosome 11 that contained the KAI1 gene was located on the proximal region of 11p11.2 divided by the D11S554 locus. The percentage of LOH or allelic imbalance at the D11S1344 locus, which is located on the same region as the KAI1 locus, in metastasis tissues from autopsy cases who died from metastatic prostate cancer was 70% (7 of 10 informative cases), whereas the percentages in primary tumors from the same cases and from cases with clinically localized prostate cancer were 33% (3 of 9 informative cases) and 8% (1 of 12 informative cases), respectively.
Conclusions: These findings demonstrate a high frequency of LOH or allelic imbalance at the centromeric region of 11p, which contains the KAI1 gene in advanced prostate cancer.