Purpose: The nonneurogenic neurogenic bladder has traditionally been believed to represent a disorder of older children. We report on patients in whom congenital dysfunctional voiding may be the underlying cause of nonneurogenic neurogenic bladder in early infancy.
Materials and methods: We evaluated 5 male and 2 female patients newborn to 30 months old with dysfunctional neurogenic bladder and no evidence of neurological pathology or anatomical outflow obstruction. Presentation included prenatal hydronephrosis in 3 cases, urosepsis in 2 and failure to thrive in 2. Radiological and urodynamic investigations revealed thick walled, poorly compliant bladders in 5 patients and incomplete bladder emptying bordering on urinary retention in 2. There was significant upper tract pathology in all cases, including azotemia in 4, reflux in 4 and hydroureteronephrosis in 6. Due to poor bladder function, manifested by incomplete emptying or high storage pressures, all patients were initially treated with cutaneous vesicostomy.
Results: Bladder appearance and function subsequently improved in 3 patients and vesicostomy was reversed. Three patients with persistently thickened bladders, including 2 with renal failure, underwent bladder augmentation. The remaining patient had improved bladder storage function but requires intermittent catheterization.
Conclusions: The nonneurogenic neurogenic bladder represents a rare, severe form of dysfunctional voiding that may be present even in the neonatal period.