We have analyzed 30 cases of advanced-stage cervical squamous cell carcinoma (stages IIb-IV) by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). The most consistent chromosomal gain in the aneuploid tumors was mapped to chromosome arm 3q in 77% of the cases. Acquisition of genetic material also occurred frequently on Iq (47%), 5p (30%), 6p (27%), and 20 (23%). Recurrent losses were mapped on 2q (33%), 3p (50%), 4 (33%), 8p (23%), and 13q (27%). High-level copy number increases were mapped to chromosome 8, chromosome arms 3q, 5p, 8q, 12p, 14q, 17q, 19q, 20p, and 20q, and chromosomal bands 3q26-27, 9p23-24, 11q22-23, and 12p13. In the majority of the cases, the presence of high-risk human papilloma virus genomes was detected. High proliferative activity was accompanied by crude aneuploidy. Increased p21/WAF-I activity, but low or undetectable expression of TP53 were representative for the immunophenotype. This study confirms the importance of a gain of chromosome arm 3q in cervical carcinogenesis and identifies additional, recurrent chromosomal aberrations that are required for progression from stage I tumors to advanced-stage carcinomas.