Lack of expression of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) results in mental retardation and macroorchidism, seen as the major pathological symptoms in fragile X patients. FMRP is a cytoplasmic RNA-binding protein which cosediments with the 60S ribosomal subunit. Recently, two proteins homologous to FMRP were discovered: FXR1 and FXR2. These novel proteins interact with FMRP and with each other and they are also associated with the 60S ribosomal subunit. Here, we studied the expression pattern of the three proteins in brain and testis by immunohistochemistry. In adult brain, FMR1, FXR1 and FXR2 proteins are coexpressed in the cytoplasm of specific differentiated neurons only. However, we observed a different expression pattern in fetal brain as well as in adult and fetal testis, suggesting independent functions for the three proteins in those tissues during embryonic development and adult life.