A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for digoxin disposition developed in the rat was modified to account for the interspecies differences in tissue-to-plasma digoxin concentration ratios and applied to the dog. The model provided a quantitative assessment of the time course of digoxin concentrations in dog plasma, various tissues, and urine. It also predicted the effect of renal failure on digoxin pharmacokinetics in the dog. An attempt to scale the dog model to humans by simply considering differences in organ volumes, organ flow rates, and digoxin clearances was partially successful. Good predictions of plasma digoxin concentration and urinary digoxin excretion after a single dose and of steady-state plasma, heart, and skeletal muscle digoxin concentrations were obtained. However, the model predicted considerably higher kidney digoxin concentrations than are actually found. Although the model adequately characterized the time course of digoxin concentrations in patients with moderate renal impairment, it provided a relatively poor fit to that observed in anuric patients.