Many patients with exocrine pancreatic cancer develop diabetes mellitus due to insulin resistance. This may relate to concurrent over-production of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) by the pancreatic beta cells. We investigated the effects of pancreatic cancer on circulating IAPP and glucose homeostasis in azaserine-treated rats (developing acinar pancreatic tumours) and BOP-treated hamsters (developing ductular pancreatic tumours). Glucose, insulin and IAPP levels in plasma were neither affected in azaserine-only treated rats nor in animals with enhanced carcinogenesis after chronic caerulein treatment. Azaserine-treated rats on a high-fat diet had decreased insulin levels and enhanced IAPP/insulin ratios in plasma, without hyperglycaemia. All BOP-treated hamsters showed pancreatic carcinogenesis at 6 months post-treatment. Supranormal plasma glucose levels in animals on a low-fat diet were the only change observed. After a second 6-month period, subnormal plasma glucose levels, at least 4-fold decreased plasma insulin and up to 2-fold decreased plasma IAPP levels were present in all hamsters. Remarkably, both in azaserine-treated rats on high-fat and in BOP-treated hamsters, decreased insulin levels and elevated IAPP/insulin ratios are not associated with hyperglycaemia. In contrast to humans with pancreatic cancer, IAPP over-production and hyperglycaemia do not develop in rats and hamsters with (pre-)neoplastic pancreatic lesions.