Hyaluronan: its nature, distribution, functions and turnover

J Intern Med. 1997 Jul;242(1):27-33. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2796.1997.00170.x.


Hyaluronan is a polysaccharide found in all tissues and body fluids of vertebrates as well as in some bacteria. It is a linear polymer of exceptional molecular weight, especially abundant in loose connective tissue. Hyaluronan is synthesized in the cellular plasma membrane. It exists as a pool associated with the cell surface, another bound to other matrix components, and a largely mobile pool. A number of proteins, the hyaladherins, specifically recognize the hyaluronan structure. Interactions of this kind bind hyaluronan with proteoglycans to stabilize the structure of the matrix, and with cell surfaces to modify cell behaviour. Because of the striking physicochemical properties of hyaluronan solutions, various physiological functions have been assigned to it, including lubrication, water homeostasis, filtering effects and regulation of plasma protein distribution. In animals and man, the half-life of hyaluronan in tissues ranges from less than 1 to several days. It is catabolized by receptor-mediated endocytosis and lysosomal degradation either locally or after transport by lymph to lymph nodes which degrade much of it. The remainder enters the general circulation and is removed from blood, with a half-life of 2-5 min, mainly by the endothelial cells of the liver sinuoids.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Humans
  • Hyaluronic Acid / biosynthesis
  • Hyaluronic Acid / metabolism
  • Hyaluronic Acid / physiology*
  • Structure-Activity Relationship


  • Hyaluronic Acid