Violence in the workplace

Annu Rev Nurs Res. 1997;15:81-99.


This integrative review of research on workplace violence in Canada and the United States showed that risk factors for homicide and nonfatal assault injuries differed significantly. In 1993, there were 1,063 work-related homicides in the United States (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1994). Workplace homicide was the second leading cause of fatal occupational injuries overall, but the primary cause for women. The highest risk for workplace homicide was observed among males, the self-employed, and those employed in grocery stores, eating and drinking establishments, gas service stations, taxicab services, and government service, including law enforcement. The majority of workplace homicides occurred during robberies. Unlike workplace homicide, the majority of nonfatal assaults that involved lost work time occurred to women, primarily employed in health care or other service sector work. The assault rates for residential care and nursing and personal care workers were more than ten times that of private non-health care industries. Minimal intervention research has been reported. In recent years, some governmental agencies and professional organizations have begun to address policy issues related to workplace violence.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Canada
  • Crime Victims
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nursing
  • Risk Factors
  • Risk Management
  • United States
  • Violence / prevention & control*
  • Violence / statistics & numerical data
  • Workplace*