Infiltration of the Arabidopsis thaliana accession Landsberg erecta (Ler) with Xanthomonas campestris pv campestris isolate 2D520 results in extensive necrosis and limited chlorosis within 5-6 days post-inoculation (d.p.i.), which can lead to systemic necrosis within 23 d.p.i. in contrast, the accession Columbia (Col) remains asymptomatic after infiltration. Although both accessions support bacterial growth, 5-28-fold more bacteria are present in Ler than in Col leaf tissue. Inheritance studies indicate that three independent, dominant or partially dominant, nuclear genes condition resistance to X. c. campestris 2D520. The major gene, termed RXC2, conditions monogenic resistance to X. c.; campestris and was mapped to a 5.5 cM interval of chromosome V. Segregation data indicate that the locus RXC3 in conjunction with RXC4 confers digenic resistance to X. c. campestris. The combined action of RXC3 and RXC4 is correlated with a suppression of in planta bacterial levels and a suppression of symptoms relative to Ler. The RXC3 + RXC4-mediated resistance is novel in that although the Col allele of RXC4 contributes positively to resistance, it is the Ler and not the Col allele of RXC3 that contributes positively to resistance. RXC3 was mapped to the bottom arm of chromosome V in a 2.7 cM interval within the major recognition gene complex MRC-J, a cluster of genes involved in disease resistance. RXC4 was mapped to a 12 cM interval on chromosome II that also contains RXC1, a gene conferring tolerance to X. c. campestris.