Background: Dual-lumen cuffed catheters are used for vascular access in patients undergoing hemodialysis. The incidence and appropriate management of catheter-related bacteremia are unknown.
Objective: To determine the incidence and outcome of catheter-related bacteremia and to assess the efficacy of catheter salvage.
Design: Prospective, observational study.
Setting: University hospital inpatient service and four affiliated outpatient dialysis units.
Patients: 102 patients with end-stage renal disease who underwent hemodialysis with dual-lumen cuffed catheters between 1 April 1995 and 1 January 1996.
Measurements: Number of days that the catheter remained in situ, treatment (catheter removal or attempted salvage with antibiotic therapy), and outcome of bacteremia. Microbiological cultures were done to identify catheter-related bacteremia.
Results: 102 patients had a total of 16,081 catheter-days. Forty-one patients (40%) developed 62 episodes of bacteremia (3.9 episodes per 1000 catheter-days [95% CI, 3.0 to 4.9 episodes per 1000 catheter-days]). Twenty-four catheters (39%) were removed immediately, and 38 (61%) were left in place during treatment. Only 12 (32%) of the 38 catheters were salvaged successfully. Salvage was less likely to succeed in patients with gram-positive bacteremia than in patients with gram-negative bacteremia, but this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.14). Nine of the 41 patients (22%) who developed bacteremia had the following complications: osteomyelitis (6 patients), septic arthritis (1 patient), infective endocarditis (4 patients), and death (2 patients). All complications followed an episode of gram-positive bacteremia, and none was associated with attempted catheter salvage.
Conclusions: Bacteremia frequently occurs in patients undergoing hemodialysis with dual-lumen catheters. Antibiotic therapy without catheter removal is unlikely to eradicate catheter-related bacteremia in these patients, but attempted salvage may not increase the risk for complications.