Heat shock protein 60 (hsp60) is a mitochondrial matrix protein involved in the folding and correct assembly of polypeptides into complex mitochondrial enzymes. Its deficiency has recently been described as the most likely primary cause of congenital lactic acidaemia with multiple mitochondrial enzyme deficiencies in a female patient. We describe a new case of a girl with a substantially decreased amount of hsp60 in cultured fibroblasts. She presented from birth with hypotonia, unusual facial features, feeding difficulties and failure to thrive. Death occurred at age 4.5 years. Biochemical findings included metabolic acidosis with lactic acidaemia, hyperammonaemia and intermittent ketosis. In contrast to the previously reported case, organic acid analysis showed an altered profile throughout her life. In agreement with this profile, various mitochondrial enzyme activities were deficient in cultured fibroblasts, including enzymes of the respiratory chain and the Krebs cycle, the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and the mitochondrial biotindependent carboxylases. Fibroblast mitochondria showed ultrastructural abnormalities, were swollen, and were mainly localized around the nucleus. The description of a second case of multiple mitochondrial enzyme deficiencies with reduced amount of hsp60 supports the idea that hsp60 deficiency might be a more common cause of mitochondrial disease. This opens new possibilities for the diagnosis and understanding of congenital lactic acidaemia.