Coenzyme Q10 in its reduced form, ubiquinol-10, although present in LDL at concentrations considerably lower than that of alpha-tocopherol, exerts a potent antioxidant action in this class of lipoproteins. Previous studies indicated that the content of CoQ10 is the lowest in the densest subfraction of LDL, i.e. LDL3, which is commonly regarded as the most peroxidizable and atherogenic one. These levels were associated with the highest levels of hydroperoxides detectable in the three subclasses. Enrichment of LDL with CoQ10, by means of exogenous supplementation, resulted in a significant increase of CoQ10 in LDL, mainly in LDL3, and in a lower extent of peroxidizability. Spontaneous oxidation of ubiquinol was monitored in plasma and in LDL of unsupplemented and of supplemented subjects and the time-course of oxidation was found considerably slower in CoQ10-enriched LDL. The lagphase of conjugated dienes formation upon induced oxidation was significantly correlated with the absolute content of ubiquinol-10. Distribution of CoQ10 among different classes of plasma lipoproteins was also studied: about 60% of plasma CoQ10 was found associated with LDL.