The study was done to investigate the incidence and severity of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in Singapore over a one-year period. Its relation to factors like birth weight, gestational age are also explored so as to identify high risk groups and provide guidelines for the implementation of a screening programme in Singapore. At the various government restructured hospitals from Dec 1993 to Nov 1994, 34.4% (72 out of 209) of babies, with birth weights less than 1250 g or gestational ages less than 32 weeks, developed ROP. The incidence of ROP correlated significantly with low birth weight, early gestational age, multiple births; the severity correlated with low birth weight and multiple births. There was a notably higher proportion of Malays in the study population (premature babies) than all the live births of the same period. From the results, an optimal screening programme should include babies weighing less than 1250 g or of gestation earlier than 32 weeks. A first examination at 33 weeks of post-menstrual age is suggested.