Acentrally active drug that enhances AMPA receptor-mediated currents was tested for its effects on memory in humans. Evidence for a positive influence on encoding was obtained in four tests: (i) visual associations, (ii) recognition of odors, (iii) acquisition of a visuospatial maze, and (iv) location and identity of playing cards. The drug did not improve scores in a task requiring cued recall of verbal information. The selectivity of drug effects on memory was confirmed using tests of visual recognition, motor performance, and general intellectual functioning. These results suggest that positive modulators of AMPA receptors selectively improve at least some aspects of memory.