The X-linked dominant form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTX) is associated with mutations in a gene coding for the gap-junction protein connexin 32 (Cx32). We screened 32 CMT families with a pedigree pattern suggestive of X-linked inheritance for the presence of mutations in the coding region of Cx32 by direct sequencing. Five of the families had a CMT1 diagnosis, 24 had a CMT2 diagnosis and 3 patients had an unspecified CMT. Eight families with a Cx32 point mutation were detected. Five different mutations (four of them published previously) were found in six CMT2 families and one mutation was found in a sporadic CMT1 male patient. One of the mutations, Met194Val, is among the first described in the fourth transmembrane domain of Cx32. Two CMT2 families and the sporadic CMT1 patient had the same mutation, Arg22Gln. An additional, previously unpublished mutation, Arg75Trp, was found in a male patient with unspecified CMT, who subsequently was verified to have a variant Klinefelter syndrome with 48,XXYY karyotype. Our findings show the difficulty in distinguishing CMTX patients from CMT1 and CMT2 patients, and they emphasize the need for Cx32 mutation screening in families previously diagnosed with CMT2.