A monoclonal antibody (mAb) with a unique antigenic specificity against Escherichia coli O9 was produced. The O9a mAb was reactive with a part of the strains in E. coli O9. The O9a mAb did not react with LPS from the E. coli O9 test strain Bi316-42. The distribution of the antigen defined by the O9a mAb in E. coli O9 was consistent with that of E. coli O9a present in E. coli O9 strains. The chemical structure of the repeating unit of the O-specific polysaccharide detected by the mAb was demonstrated to be a mannotetraose by two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. It was confirmed that the mAb recognized E. coli O9a serotype in E. coli O9 serotype strains, suggesting that E. coli O9a serotype might be a dominant strain in E. coli O9.