The effect of (+)-5-oxo-D-prolinepiperidinamide monohydrate (NS-105), a novel cognition enhancer, on adenylate cyclase activity was investigated in cultured neurons of the mouse cerebral cortex. NS-105 (10(-7) and 10(-6) M) inhibited forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP formation, an action that was dependent on pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins. Conversely, in pertussis toxin-pretreated neurons, NS-105 (10(-7)-10(-5) M) significantly enhanced the forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP formation, and this action was completely reversed by cholera toxin. A metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist (1S, 3R)-1-aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid (1S, 3R-ACPD) produced similar bi-directional actions on the cyclic AMP formation. Both of these inhibitory and facilitatory actions of NS-105 and 1S, 3R-ACPD were blocked by L(+)-2-amino-3-phosphopropinoic acid (L-AP3). NS-105 (10(-6) M) and 1S, 3R-ACPD (10(-4) M) significantly enhanced isoproterenol- and adenosine-stimulated cyclic AMP formation. The enhancement of such Gs-coupled receptor agonists-stimulated cyclic AMP formation was also produced by quisqualate but not by L(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutanoate (L-AP4). The phosphoinositides hydrolysis was enhanced by 1S, 3R-ACPD (10(-4) M) but not by NS-105 (10(-6) M), however, 1S, 3R-ACPD-induced increase in phosphoinositides turnover was attenuated by NS-105. These findings suggest that NS-105 stimulates metabotropic glutamate receptor subclasses that are coupled both negatively and positively to adenylate cyclase, but it acts as an antagonist at the receptor subclasses that are linked to phosphoinositides hydrolysis.