During the past six years, we have treated eight patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) for nephrolithiasis. In seven patients, the stones were comprised of calcium oxalate. Another six patients had calcium oxalate crystalluria. In our CF population of 140 patients, this represents a cumulative incidence of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis of 5.7 percent and an additional 4.2 percent incidence of crystalluria. Experience with these patients is reviewed. Pancreatic insufficiency was universally associated with nephrolithiasis or crystalluria. Diabetes and cirrhosis were also common. Predisposing factors and potential mechanisms of stone disease in pancreatic insufficient CF patients are discussed, focusing on the relationship between fat malabsorption in CF to oxalate metabolism.