We have shown previously that expression of the NTH1 gene is increased at heat stress (40 degrees C) both at the mRNA and enzymatic activity levels. This increased expression was correlated to the requirement of the NTH1 gene for recovery after heat shock at 50 degrees C and the presence of stress responsive elements STRE (CCCCT) 3 times in its promoter region [S. Nwaka et al., FEBS Lett. 360 (1995) 286-290; S. Nwaka et al., J. Biol. Chem. 270 (1995) 10193-10198]. We show here that expression of the NTH1 gene and its product, neutral trehalase (Nthlp), are also induced by other stressors such as H2O2, CuSO4, NaAsO2, and cycloheximide (CHX). Heat-induced expression of the NTH1 gene is shown to be accompanied by accumulation of trehalose. In contrast, the chemical stressors which also induce the expression of NTH1 did not lead to accumulation of trehalose under similar conditions. Our data suggest that: (1) heat- and chemical stress-induced expression of neutral trehalase is largely due to de novo protein synthesis, and (2) different mechanisms may control the heat- and chemical stress-induced expression of NTH1 at the transcriptional level. Participation of neutral trehalase (Nth1p) in multiple stress response dependent and independent on trehalose is discussed.