This study examines whether neurologic examinations at 6 and 12 months of age can predict developmental patterns in very low birth weight infants and fullterm controls through 40 months of age. We performed neurologic examinations at 6 and 12 months; the Bayley Scales of Infant Development at 6, 12, and 24 months; and the Stanford-Binet and the McCarthy Motor scale at 40 months. The very low birth weight infants were categorized on the basis of socioeconomic status and high or low risk for early medical complications. More abnormal neurologic scores predicted greater deceleration of cognitive development for high-risk infants only. The 12-month neurologic examination predicted the degree of deceleration in motor development. Medical risk was an independent predictor of curvature of the psychomotor development curve. We conclude that neurologic examinations during the 1st year of life might be used with other factors in decision concerning referrals to early-intervention programs.