A novel cardiac-restricted target for doxorubicin. CARP, a nuclear modulator of gene expression in cardiac progenitor cells and cardiomyocytes

J Biol Chem. 1997 Sep 5;272(36):22800-8. doi: 10.1074/jbc.272.36.22800.


Doxorubicin (Dox), a cardiotoxic antineoplastic drug, disrupts the cardiac-specific program of gene expression (Kurabayashi, M., Dutta, S., Jeyaseelan, R., and Kedes, L. (1995) Mol. Cell. Biol. 15, 6386-6397; Jeyaseelan, R., Poizat, C., Wu, H. Y., and Kedes, L. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 5828-5832). To determine whether this drug might interfere with the function of cardiac-specific regulatory pathways, we used a differential display strategy to clone from neonatal rat cardiomyocyte candidate mRNAs that were rapidly sensitive to Dox. We report here the identification of a constitutively expressed, cardiac-restricted, nuclear protein whose mRNA level is exquisitely sensitive to Dox. Hence we have named this protein cardiac adriamycin-responsive protein (CARP). CARP mRNA is present at the earliest stages of cardiac morphogenesis. It was detected by in situ hybridization within the cardiogenic plate of 7. 5-day post coitum (p.c.) embryos, and in 8.5-day p.c. embryos CARP transcripts are present in uniformly high levels in the myocardium. Throughout cardiac development, CARP expression is specific for the myocardium; endocardial cushions and valves exhibit only background levels of signal. Transcript levels persist but gradually decrease in neonatal, 2-week-old, and adult hearts. There were no stages when CARP mRNA could not be detected. The pattern and timing of CARP mRNA expression, including transient expression in the tongue at 14.5 days p.c., coincides with that of Nkx2.5/Csx (a putative homolog of tinman, the Drosophila melanogaster gene responsible for cardiac development). The cloned full-length 1749 nucleotide CARP cDNA encodes a 319-amino acid 40-kDa polypeptide containing five tandem ankyrin repeats. CARP appears to be the rat homolog of a previously reported human single-copy gene (C-193; Chu, W., Burns, D. K., Swerlick, R. A., and Presky, D. H. (1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270, 10236-10245), whose mRNA is inducible by cytokines only in human endothelial cells. CARP appears to function as a negative regulator of cardiac-specific gene expression. Overexpression of CARP in cardiomyocytes suppresses cardiac troponin C and atrial natriuretic factor transcription. Cotransfection experiments in HeLa cells indicate that CARP inhibits Nkx2.5 transactivation of atrial natriuretic factor promoter. When fused to a GAL4 DNA-binding domain, CARP has transcriptional inhibitory properties in noncardiac cells. CARP thus represents the first example of a cardiac-restricted transcriptional regulatory protein that is sensitive to Dox.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / adverse effects*
  • Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / pharmacology
  • Base Sequence
  • Cardiomyopathies / chemically induced
  • Cells, Cultured
  • DNA, Complementary
  • Doxorubicin / adverse effects*
  • Doxorubicin / pharmacology
  • Embryo, Mammalian / metabolism
  • Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects*
  • Heart / drug effects*
  • Mice
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Muscle Proteins / genetics*
  • Muscle Proteins / metabolism
  • Myocardium / cytology
  • Myocardium / metabolism*
  • Nuclear Proteins / genetics*
  • Nuclear Proteins / metabolism
  • Phenotype
  • RNA, Messenger / genetics*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid


  • Ankrd1 protein, rat
  • Antibiotics, Antineoplastic
  • DNA, Complementary
  • Muscle Proteins
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Doxorubicin