The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a self-management program for adults with moderate to severe asthma on compliance with inhaled, prescribed, nonemergency medications; asthma symptoms; and airway obstruction. In this controlled experimental study, 55 subjects from a rural community were randomized to one of two groups. Self-efficacy theory served as the framework for this study. Primary measures included the Metered Dose Inhaler (MDI) Chronolog, a journal of daily asthma concerns, and a peak-flow meter to appraise airway obstruction. Secondary measures included the Asthma Self-Management Assessment Tool (ASMAT) and the Self-Efficacy for Asthma Management Scale (SEAMS). These measures were completed pre- and post-intervention. Data analysis using descriptive and inferential statistics revealed that subjects receiving the self-management program increased compliance with inhaled medications (U = 271, p = .043).