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Review
. 1997;27(3):541-57.
doi: 10.2190/HKGJ-1YMY-Q3JW-96LU.

Population Control II: The Population Establishment Today

Affiliations
Review

Population Control II: The Population Establishment Today

B Hartmann. Int J Health Serv. .

Abstract

Although population assistance represents a relatively small share of official development assistance, it influences many other aspects of development planning. The organizations that comprise the population establishment have a common purpose--the reduction of population growth in the Third World--but they are not homogeneous and sometimes have conflicting goals and strategies. National governments, multilateral agencies, nongovernmental organizations, foundations, academic centers, and pressure groups all contribute to creating and sustaining what has become a virtual population control industry. Through scholarships, travel grants, awards, and favorable publicity, Third World elites have been encouraged to join the population establishment. The World Bank, the U.S. Agency for International Development, and the U.N. Fund for Population Activities have pursued explicit strategies for pressuring Third World governments to design and implement population policies, most recently in Africa.

PIP: About US$5 billion is spent annually on family planning in the Third World. About $3 billion is spent by Third World governments, with China, India, and Indonesia being the biggest spenders; more than $1 billion is donated by the governments of developed countries, multilateral institutions, and private agencies; and the rest is spent by individual contraceptive users. While the level of population assistance has increased over time, it still accounts for only 1% of official development assistance (ODA). This percentage is, however, significant since less than 7% of ODA is allocated to human welfare concerns and population aid and the policies it helps to generate influence many other aspects of development planning. The organizations which comprise the population establishment have the common purpose of reducing population growth in developing countries, but they are nonetheless different entities with sometimes conflicting goals and strategies. National governments, multilateral agencies, nongovernmental organizations, foundations, academic centers, and pressure groups all contribute to the creation and perpetuation of the population control industry. Through scholarships, travel grants, awards, and favorable publicity, developing country cities have been encouraged to join the population establishment. The World Bank, the US Agency for International Development, and the UN Population Fund have followed explicit strategies for pressuring Third World governments to design and implement population policies, most recently in Africa.

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