We have studied the cervicovaginal antibody responses in mice, by ELISA, following mucosal immunizations with group B streptococci (GBS) serotype III/R4. Immunizations were carried out either: (1) rectally with GBS alone; (2) rectally with GBS plus cholera toxin (CT); (3) nasally with GBS alone; (4) nasally with GBS+CT; or (5) nasally under general anesthesia with GBS+CT. Nasal immunizations with GBS alone led to at least tenfold higher levels of specific IgA-antibodies to GBS in cervicovaginal secretions than with any other immunization. These mucosal antibody levels were higher than after rectal immunizations, and 2-17 times higher than the corresponding IgA antibody levels in sera. Markedly lower cervicovaginal antibody levels were found in mice which had received GBS together with CT as a mucosal adjuvant than in mice immunized by the same routes with GBS alone. Our observations indicate that a nasal vaccine consisting of GBS might induce sufficient antibody levels to protect against genital colonization of these bacteria.