Purpose: To characterize fully all the major and minor carotenoids and their metabolites in human retina and probe for the presence of the oxidative metabolites of lutein and zeaxanthin.
Methods: Carotenoids of a composite of 58 pairs of human retinas and a monkey retina were elucidated by comparing their high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ultraviolet/visible absorption spectrophotometry (UV/Vis)-mass spectrometry (MS) profile with those of authentic standards prepared by organic synthesis.
Results: In addition to lutein and zeaxanthin, several oxidation products of these compounds were present in the extracts from human retina. A major carotenoid resulting from direct oxidation of lutein was identified as 3-hydroxy-beta, epsilon-caroten-3'-one. Minor carotenoids were identified as: 3'-epilutein, epsilon,epsilon-carotene-3,3'-diol, epsilon,epsilon-carotene-3,3'-dione, 3'-hydroxy-epsilon,epsilon-caroten-3-one, and 2,6-cyclolycopene-1,5-diol. Several of the geometric isomers of lutein and zeaxanthin were also detected at low concentrations. These were as follows: 9-cis-lutein, 9'-cislutein, 13-cis-lutein, 13'-cis-lutein, 9-cis-zeaxanthin, and 13-cis-zeaxanthin. Similar results were also obtained from HPLC analysis of a freshly dissected monkey retina.
Conclusions: Lutein, zeaxanthin, 3'-epilutein, and 3-hydroxy-beta,epsilon-caroten-3'-one in human retina may be interconverted through a series of oxidation-reduction reactions similar to our earlier proposed metabolic transformation of these compounds in humans. The presence of the direct oxidation product of lutein and 3'-epilutein (metabolite of lutein and zeaxanthin) in human retina suggests that lutein and zeaxanthin may act as antioxidants to protect the macula against short-wavelength visible light. The proposed oxidative-reductive pathways for lutein and zeaxanthin in human retina, may therefore play an important role in prevention of age-related macular degeneration and cataracts.